lawful permanent resident
Few LPRs Who Leave (Emigrate from) the U.S. Formally Abandon their Immigration Status: Important Tax Consequences (Part II)
U.S. federal immigration law (Title 8) sometimes has very important federal tax (Title 26) consequences. See an earlier post, Who is a “long-term” lawful permanent resident (“LPR”) and why does it matter?
Back in 2020, as the Corona-virus pandemic was hitting, I wrote a post titled Few LPRs Who Leave (Emigrate from) the U.S. Formally Abandon their Immigration Status: Important Tax Consequences (Part I) It’s now time to post Part II.
- The Number of LPRs Declined in the Corona-virus Pandemic
Not surprisingly, the number of new LPRs into the U.S. dropped substantially in correlation with the Corona-virus pandemic. See, the Office of Immigration Statistics, 28 Sept. 2021: Fiscal Year 2021 U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents Annual Flow Report. The Figure 1 (highlighted by me) and that report notes:
Just over 700 thousand persons became LPRs in 2020, as reduced international travel during the
COVID-19 pandemic and policy changes brought new LPR admissions in 2020 to their lowest
level since 2003. The majority of these LPRs (62 percent) were already present in the United
States when they were granted lawful permanent residence. A little under two-thirds (63 percent)
were granted LPR status based on a family relationship with a U.S. citizen or current LPR. The
leading countries of birth of new LPRs were Mexico, India, and People’s Republic of China
(China). In 2020, there was a 31 percent reduction in U.S. grants of LPR status compared to
Largely due to the COVID-19 pandemic, LPR flows in 2020 were not representative of typical
trends (Figure 1). Travel restrictions and processing slowdowns generally resulted in fewer
inflows, while foreign-born residents within the United States also confronted immigration
status-specific COVID-19 vulnerabilities.5
The key tax question for LPRs who no longer live in the U.S. (or who are planning to leave the U.S. to live in another country) is: Are they (or will they become) a so-called “long-term resident” as defined in the federal “expatriation” tax law?
IRC Section 877(e)(1) and (2) define a “long-term resident” and these paragraphs are included below in their entirety:
(1) In general
Any long-term resident of the United States who ceases to be a lawful permanent resident of the United States (within the meaning of section 7701(b)(6)) shall be treated for purposes of this section and sections 2107, 2501, and 6039G in the same manner as if such resident were a citizen of the United States who lost United States citizenship on the date of such cessation or commencement.
(2) Long-term resident
For purposes of this subsection, the term “long-term resident” means any individual (other than a citizen of the United States) who is a lawful permanent resident of the United States in at least 8 taxable years during the period of 15 taxable years ending with the taxable year during which the event described in paragraph (1) occurs. For purposes of the preceding sentence, an individual shall not be treated as a lawful permanent resident for any taxable year if such individual is treated as a resident of a foreign country for the taxable year under the provisions of a tax treaty between the United States and the foreign country and does not waive the benefits of such treaty applicable to residents of the foreign country.
You will note this definition of “long-term resident” was added in 1996 to the original statute (Added Pub. L. 89–809, title I, § 103(f)(1), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1551) creating this concept of taxation to former U.S. citizens pursuant to the The Foreign Investors Tax Act of 1966 (“FITA”). See an earlier post I made in 2014/2015 titled: The Foreign Investors Tax Act of 1966 (“FITA”) – The Origin of U.S. Tax Expatriation Law.
Notably, the “mark to market” taxation concept was only added in 2008 pursuant to a new code section 877A which cross references back to Section 877(e) for reference to the definition of a “long-term resident”. See, a prior post titled: The “Phantom” Gain Exclusion from the “Mark to Market” Tax – Increases to US$690,000 for the Year 2015.
The Next Post on this topic will break down the elements of –
(1) who will necessarily be a “long-term resident”?
(2) who may be “long-term resident”?
(3) what steps can be taken to necessarily avoid “long-term resident” status?
Finally, a discussion will be had in the last post in this series of some of the potential adverse tax consequences to “long-term residents” depending upon different factual scenarios.
IT AIN’T FAIR: First (1) taxing me as a U.S. citizen and then (2) taxing me on my relinquishment or renunciation of U.S. citizenship or LPR abandoment and further (3) taxing my children on their inheritance from me!@!@!
This sums up the argument of many critics of U.S. citizenship based taxation of worldwide income.
However, the argument of fairness has little place in interpretations of Title 26, the U.S. federal tax law. For example, the U.S. Tax Courts are not courts of equity. See, The United States Tax Court – An Historical Analysis, Dubroff and Hellwig, footnote 668.
Also, virtually no courts of the U.S. find U.S. tax laws to be unconstitutional. It is a very rare occurrence that the U.S. Supreme Court even takes up a tax case to determine its constitutionality. The “Obamacare” with broad application throughout society was a case heard by the Supreme Court which upheld a law signed by President Obama on March 23, 2010, more correctly called the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. That law increased Medicare taxes and imposed a penalty surcharge on individuals who do not maintain certain health coverage.
In contrast, U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents (LPRs) residing overseas are a relatively small population of the U.S. taxpayer population. Accordingly, it was only until late the U.S. government even began focusing on this population to collect taxes from them. See, Is the new government focus on U.S. citizens living outside the U.S. misguided or a glimpse at the new future?, posted March 6, 2014.
Finally, see various proposals to modify the law: e.g., U.S. Citizenship Based Taxation – Proposals for Reform – “Tax Simplification: The Need for Consistent Tax Treatment of All Individuals (Citizens, Lawful Permanent Residents and Non-Citizens Regardless of Immigration Status) Residing Overseas, Including the Repeal of U.S. Citizenship Based Taxation,” by Patrick W. Martin and Professor Reuven Avi-Yonah, September 2013.
This paper proposes to eliminate the U.S. citizenship based taxation and create a consistent exit tax system. The complex web of the current U.S. tax law has made it nearly impossible for all but the most sophisticated U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents (“LPRs”) residing overseas to file complete and accurate tax returns. The proposal should bring consistency, tax simplicity for taxpayers residing outside the U.S., and do so in part by eliminating the U.S. citizenship based tax system, which is unique in the world, dates to the civil war and is inappropriate for the global world we live in.
- Summary of Current Status of the Law
To date, there is no serious and comprehensive proposal to modify the U.S. federal tax law imposing U.S. taxation of the worldwide income of USCs and LPRs residing outside the U.S.
There are also no serious proposals to repeal the current U.S. “expatriation tax” on (1) mark to market income and gains (When does “Covered Expatriate” Status -NOT- matter?) and (2) the 40% tax on covered gifts and inheritances (see, Proposed Regulations for “Covered Gifts” and “Covered Bequests” Issued by Treasury Last Week (Be Careful What You Ask For!)
Timing Issues for Lawful Permanent Residents (“LPR”) Who Never “Formally Abandoned” Their Green Card
The “tax expatriation” statutory provisions are fraught with ambiguity and incomplete answers for those individuals who have cases that span different time periods. This is because the law has been changed numerous times over the last several years and ad hoc concepts added, including the technical concept of “long-term residents” for the first time in 1996. As has been previously explained, the first “expatriation tax” law was not adopted until 1966 as part of the The Foreign Investors Tax Act of 1966 (“FITA”) – The Origin of U.S. Tax Expatriation Law (Posted on April 6, 2014).
Next, 1996 amendments kept the basic regime but added a number of key concepts, including “long-term residents”. The changes in the law in 2004 made significant changes and in 2008 the first “mark to market” regime was adopted. Each time, the concept of “long-term residents” was maintained, but without clear thought as to the meaning and timing of “expatriation” in various cases. See, Timeline Summary of Changes in Tax Expatriation Provisions Since 1996, (Posted on April 9, 2014)
Unfortunately, none of these amendments to the law over the years carefully incorporated transition and timing rules for cases where the individual has lived in (or had U.S. citizenship or LPR) during one more of these time periods:
There are many inconsistent concepts among the law and one clear example is demonstrated by an individual who became a lawful permanent resident prior to 1996 and prior to amendments in the definition of a “resident alien” which was adopted generally in the federal tax in the law in 1984. This 1984 definition was not part of any specific “expatriation tax” provisions.
Remember, the technical definition of who is a “resident alien” is the basic definition of who is generally subject to U.S. income taxation on their worldwide income. See, Co-author. “Tax Simplification: The Need for Consistent Tax Treatment of All Individuals (Citizens, Lawful Permanent Residents and Non-Citizens Regardless of Immigration Status) Residing Overseas, Including the Repeal of U.S. Citizenship Based Taxation,” by Patrick W. Martin and Professor Reuven Avi-Yonah, September 2013.
Prior to 1984, a LPR was not necessarily an income tax resident of the U.S. This concept of LPR (i.e., a “green card”) driving U.S. income tax residency was adopted in 1984, long before Congress became obsessed with U.S. individual tax expatriation. For background in the law, see the 1985 Penn State Law Review Article – Internal Revenue Code 7701(b): A More Certain Definition of Resident
The Joint Committee on Taxation report on the 1984 changes in the tax law (“General explanation of the revenue provisions of the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 : (H.R. 4170, 98th Congress; Public Law 98-369)“) addressing the tax residency test of “lawful permanent residency” rules provides the following language:
. . . The Act defines “lawful permanent resident” to mean an individual who has the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, if such status has not been revoked or administratively or judicially determined to have been abandoned. Therefore, an alien who comes to the United States so infrequently that, on scrutiny, he or she is no longer legally entitled to permanent resident status, but who has not officially lost or abandoned that status, will be a resident for tax purposes. The purpose for this requirement of revocation or determination is to prevent aliens from attempting to retain an apparent right to enter or remain in the United States while attempting to avoid the tax responsibility that accompanies that right.
The logic of the LPR test is clear based upon this explanation. If one has the right to live in the U.S., they cannot avoid the tax responsibility that accompanies that right. However, as immigration lawyers will explain, there is no right to enter the U.S. after you have abandoned your LPR status and moved outside the U.S. on a permanent basis.
At the same time, there is other discussion in the report that would support the position that these provisions only apply for the years 1985 and thereafter (long after many individuals obtained LPR status, but who moved out of the country – e.g., in cases where individuals obtained LPR in the 1970s and left before 1985). Specifically, the explanation in the Joint Committee of Taxation is as follows:
. . . The purpose of this effective date rule is to delay tax resident status for only new green cardholders for a short time. Congress understood further that an alien may acquire lawful permanent resident status for immigration purposes before U.S. presence. Congress sought to impose tax resident status on all lawful permanent residents once they arrive in the United States. The Act does not affect the determination of residence, even for green card holders, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1985.
Of course, the report by the Joint Committee on Taxation (“JCT”) is not the law and does not bind the IRS or the taxpayer. However, the JCT usually get their explanations of the law right.
Why is all of this important for LPRs who never formally abandoned their “green card”? The IRS might well try to argue they never terminated their U.S. federal income tax residency for purposes of the “tax expatriation provisions”, as later versions of the statute impose an obligation to notify the IRS. If the individual never notified the IRS, the government might ar
See, for instance Section 7701(b)(6) with specific rules for LPR individuals who live in a country with a U.S. income tax treaty. Importantly, the definition of a lawful permanent resident for tax purposes (as defined in Section 7701(b) ) is not identical to the definition for immigration law purposes as the legislative history to the 1984 amendments to the law explains.
See, Oops…Did I “Expatriate” and Never Know It: Lawful Permanent Residents Beware! International Tax Journal, CCH Wolters Kluwer, Jan.-Feb. 2014, Vol. 40 Issue 1, p9.
Finally, the information required as part of the process of formal abandonment is much more extensive than in the past.
A prior post discussed the published USCIS immigration form I-407 for LPRs who must now use it when formally abandoning LPR status. See, More Information and More Information: USCIS Creates New Form for Abandonment of Lawful Permanent Residency
See, new I-407 Form requires that much more information and is 2 pages in length.
As discussed in the last post, this post addresses immigration law exclusively by a guest post writer, Ms. Teodora Purcell. She provides a good overview of EB-5 visas and the current law and likely changes in the near future.
The Pros and Cons of the EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program
The EB-5 Immigrant Investor program was created by the Immigration and Nationality Act (“INA”) of 1990 to stimulate the US economy through capital investments made by foreign investors to create jobs. It attracts capital by facilitating US permanent resident status (aka “green card”) for foreigners who make a $1 million USD (or in some cases, $500,000 USD) investment in an eligible business that results in at least ten US jobs and benefits the US economy.
The pros of the EB-5 program to the US are evident from the numbers. In FY 2014, 10,928 EB-5 petitions were filed with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (“USCIS”), 5,115 approved, and 12,453 pending, which translates into over $2.5 billion approved for investment and an additional $6.2 billion in capital awaiting federal adjudication, and the creation of thousands of US jobs. EB-5 capital is also an attractive low cost funding tool for project developers in the US, while it offers the foreign investor a path to permanent residency that is not visa backlogged and does not require sponsorship by a US employer or relative. But is the EB-5 an easy and quick way “to purchase your green card”?
Basic EB-5 Requirements
The EB-5 program includes two separate avenues: (1) Direct EB-5 investment – where the investor invests in an enterprise and plays a role in management or policy making, which will directly create ten jobs, or (2) Regional Center based EB-5 investment – where the investor invests in a USCIS approved regional center and plays a more passive role by having policy making authority. Both require: (1) the investment to be made in a for-profit, new commercial enterprise; (2) a contribution of capital at risk in the amount of $1,000,000 USD, or $500,000 USD if the business is in a targeted employment area (i.e. high unemployment or rural area), aka “TEA”; (3) the investment to be used for creation of at least ten full time jobs for US workers; and (4) the investor to establish the path and the lawful source of the investment.
Pros and Cons of Direct and Regional Center EB-5 Investments
The Regional Center (“RC”) is an entity designated and regulated by USCIS, which pools EB-5 capital from multiple foreign investors in job-creating economic development projects within a defined geographic region and designated industries. USCIS has approved approximately 600 RCs and 95% of the EB-5 petitions are based on a RC investment. Notably, EB-5 RC investment funds are subject to U.S. securities and anti-fraud laws and regulations, and the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) and USCIS are raising awareness of how the EB-5 program can be misused and of the importance of proper due diligence to be conducted by foreign investors.
The direct EB-5 program is permanent, whereas the RC EB-5 program sunsets on September 30, 2015, but is expected to be reauthorized by Congress for another five years, and there is proposed legislation to make it permanent. The most recent bipartisan bill on the RC EB-5 program, The American Job Creation and Investment Promotion Reform Act, was introduced on June 3, 2015, known as The Leahy-Grassley Bill. The proposed legislation would reauthorize the EB-5 RC program until September 30, 2020, rather than make it permanent, and will provide an overhaul of reforms to improve the program’s integrity, including raise the requirement investment amount to $800,000/ $1,200,000, respectfully.
With the direct EB-5 investment, the foreign national accomplishes not only an immigration purpose but also a purpose of investing in a business that he or she runs and that may provide significant return, whereas with the RC EB-5 investment, the rate of return is typically 0.5-2% and the investor plays a more passive role. However, the direct EB-5 investor must prove direct employment of ten U.S. workers, whereas, with RC EB-5 investment, the job creation is shown by a combination of direct, indirect and induced employment using reasonable economic methodologies. Most (but not all) RCs are located in $500,000 TEAs but there can be direct EB-5 investments that also qualify for the reduced capital. Both EB-5 options require the investor to be engaged in the “management” of the enterprise, which can be satisfied if the investor is a limited partner with the rights, powers and duties normally granted to limited partners under the Uniform Limited Partnership Act. Which EB-5 option to choose requires an individualized analysis of the investor’s circumstances and goals.
No Fast Track EB-5 Process and No Guaranteed US Permanent Residence
The EB-5 investors are not guaranteed a green card because of the lengthy process and possibility that the project in which they invest could fail or undergo material changes, and there is no expedite processing of EB-5 petitions. The process starts with the filing of an I-526 immigrant entrepreneur petition with USCIS, in which the investor must establish the lawful source of funds, document the path of the required investment, and show that the ten US jobs will be created within two years, or that the jobs have already been created as a result of the investment.
The filing of an I-526 petition alone does not give the investor the right to stay or work in the US. Current I-526 average processing time is approximately 14 months and the I-526 approval does not give the investor permanent residence. Rather, after the approval, if the investor is outside the US, he or she and dependent family members will apply for their immigrant visas at the US Consulate in their home country, which requires additional documentation, security checks and adds another 6-12 months to the process. If the investor is in the US in valid nonimmigrant status, he or she will adjust status to permanent resident in the US, which takes about six months. So after 2-3 years (provided no visa retrogression), the investor receives a green card that is conditional and valid for only two years.
Within 90 days of the conditional green card expiration (i.e. between the 21 to 24 month after the green card approval), the investor must file an I-829 application to remove the condition on permanent residence with USCIS, and prove that the investment has been sustained and that the requisite jobs have been created or will be created within a “reasonable time.” The current average I-829 processing time is 10 months and if unsuccessful, the EB-5 investor may not only lose the green card but end up in removal proceedings. If the I-829 is approved, the EB-5 investor receives his or her permanent green card. During this process, the EB-5 investment must remain in the enterprise until the condition is removed (i.e. for 4-5 years), whereas in all other employment based green card categories, the result is a permanent green card and no such significant financial commitment is required.
The EB-5 program accounts for less than 1% of the immigrant visas issued annually by the US and throughout the process, investors are subject to the same background checks as applicants in any other visa category, and their ability to eventually apply for citizenship is the same as others. The INA allocates 10,000 EB-5 immigrant visas, of which 3,000 are reserved for the RC program, and no more than 7 percent of the visas can be allocated to any one country. Since close to 85% of the investors are from China, for the first time in September 2014, the EB-5 visas became unavailable for Chinese nationals, and EB-5 visa backlog for Chinese investors may be expected in 2015. There are more significant immigrant visa quota backlogs in other categories of family and employment-based immigration, which is why the EB-5 still remains attractive.
EB-5 and Other Green Card Options
Despite the challenges investors may face in tracing the invested funds or in the job creation, and the possibility of visa backlog for some, the EB-5 is still a good option, although it is not the panacea for all foreign nationals seeking permanent residence in the US. There are other employment based visa options that may be available for the investor and these alternatives, if successful, lead to a permanent green card, do not require placement of a $1,000,000 investment at risk, and there are minimal concerns about visa availability. For the foreign nationals who choose the EB-5 green card avenue, it is important to put together a competent team that includes an immigration counsel, as well as business, tax, and securities counsels, to advise on the multiple complex issues that go into determining whether the EB5 green card path is the right choice for the client.
Immigrant investors and entrepreneurs bring substantial value to the United States, not only through the capital they deploy or the jobs they create, but also with the knowledge and experience they bring to US businesses, and working with such clients is very rewarding.
 The immigration EB-5 laws can be found at INA§203(b)(5); 8 CFR§204.6 and 8 CFR§216.6.
 https://iiusa.org/blog/government-affairs/uscis-government-affairs/citizenship-immigration-services-uscis-adjudication-data-i526-i829-petitions-reveal-unprecedented-growth-eb5-program-fiscal-year-2014/ /
 8 CFR §§204.6(e) & (h).
 There is a proposed legislation to increase the investment amount to $1,200,000 USD and $800,000 USD, respectively. See S.1501, The American Job Creation and Investment Promotion Reform Act, available at https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/senate-bill/1501/text
 8 CFR §§204.6(e) & (f)(2).
 8 CFR §§204.6(e) & (j)(4). The USCIS deems the two year period to commence six months after the adjudication of the I-526 petition. See USCIS Policy Memorandum (May 30, 2013)
 8 CFR §204.6(e).
 The interest being offered and sold in an EB-5 offering by regional centers constitute securities. See Securities Act of 1933; Securities Exchange Act of 1934.).
 For more information, see http://www.sec.gov/investor/alerts/ia_immigrant.htm
 S.744, H.R. 2131, H.$. 4178, and H.R. 4659 in the 113th Congress
 S.1501, The American Job Creation and Investment Promotion Reform Act, available at https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/senate-bill/1501/text. Also see http://www.leahy.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/The%20American%20Job%20Creation%20and%20Investment%20Promotion%20Reform%20Act.pdf
If implemented, the Leahy-Grassley legislation will have a significant impact on Regional Centers and investors alike, some of the most notable changes proposed to the EB-5 Program include: (1) Raise the minimum investment amount for all EB-5 investors to $800,000 for TEAs and $1,200,000, respectively; (2) Establish an “EB-5 Integrity Fund” to cover the costs associated with audits and site visits to detect fraud in the United States and abroad; (3) Increased oversight of TEA designation; (4) Expanded USCIS authority to terminate Regional Center designation; (5) Establish a premium processing option to expedite USCIS adjudication of EB-5 petitions at an additional filing fee.
 8 CFR §204.6(j)(5).
 The USCIS requires that the I-526 petition be accompanied by a detailed and credible business plan compliant with the requirements in the precedent decision of Matter of Ho, 22 I&N Dec. 206 (INS Assoc. Comm’r, Examinations, 1998).
 8 CFR §216.6
 8 CFR §216.6(a)(4)(iv) . In its May 30, 2013 Policy Memorandum, USCIS has interpreted “reasonable time” to mean one year, starting at the end of the conditional residence period.
 INA §203(a) ; INA §204(1) & INA§202(a)(2).
Teodora Purcell | Attorney at Law
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