U.S citizens (USCs) and Lawful Permanent Residents (LPRs): Caution When Making Gifts. US Tax Court Recently Ruled a 1972 Gift by Sumner Redstone Still Open to IRS Challenge

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The statute of limitations is one of the most important considerations for any individual when considering what tax consequences the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) might argue they have for years past.  This can occur many years into the future as explained further below.  Statute of Limitations General Rules

Former USCs and LPRs can be in a particularly precarious position, as was recently demonstrated by a U.S. Tax Court case for a gift that was made decades ago in 1972.  See, Redstone vs. Commissioner (TCM 2015-237).  Although this U.S. Tax Court case involving Sumner Redstone had nothing to do with renunciation of citizenship, it shows how the IRS can reach back many years and even decades in assessing taxes it claims are owing.  The newly (in year 2010) added IRC Section 6501(c)(8) makes this highly likely under current revised law.

Former USCs and any U.S. beneficiaries of theirs (e.g., U.S. resident children or grandchildren who might receive gifts or bequests from the former USCs) should be cognizant of the statute of limitations.  See a prior post from 2014, When the U.S. Tax Law has no Statute of Limitations against the IRS; i.e., for the U.S. citizen and LPR residing outside the U.S.

As this prior post noted, there are at least three basic scenarios when there is no statute of limitations for federal tax matters are as follows:

1.  The former USC or LPR does not file a U.S. income tax return, when they had a requirement to so file.  IRC Section 6501(c)(3).  See a post from 2014, When do I meet the gross income thresholds that require me to file a U.S. income tax return?Europe Map

2.  There is fraud on the part of the taxpayer (e.g., the taxpayer intentionally does not report income).  IRC Sections 6501(c)(1), (c)(2).

3.  The USC or LPR fails to report certain foreign transactions, including inadvertently neglecting to report.   IRC Section 6501(c)(8).  This rule was only recently adopted as part of the “HIRE Act” which also created FATCA.  The types of transactions set above in the table provides a brief summary of when transactions can give rise to an “open” statute of limitations period.   In other words, as many years and decades can pass (see Redstone 1972 gift transaction) before the IRS ever has to make a proposed assessment of taxes and penalties.   These include numerous ownership or economic interests in foreign (non-U.S.) companies, partnerships, foreign trusts, foreign investment accounts, among others.

This is indeed one of those areas where the IRS can argue a “gotcha moment”; simply because the former USC or LPR was not aware of the extremely complex rules of reporting assets (normally in their own country of residence outside the U.S.).   The consequences to these families can go on indefinitely, per  post from September 2015, Finally – Proposed Regulations for “Covered Gifts” and “Covered Bequests” Issued by Treasury Last Week (Be Careful What You Ask For!)

For a more in depth review of the international (non-U.S.) transactions that give rise to this reporting, see IRS Forms 3520, 3520-A, 5471, 8865, 5472, 8938, 8858, 926 among others.

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