The last post discusses a scenario where an individual can be forced into “tax expatriation” by a third-party; i.e., the government, if a criminal tax investigation were to be pursued successfully. See, Unplanned Expatriation: Lawful Permanent Residents’ Deportation Risks for Filing U.S. Federal False Tax Returns
We can call this “forced expatriation”; when the government takes investigative action to deport a lawful permanent resident (“LPR); i.e., cause a forced tax expatriation where an individual files a false return, provides false information or otherwise submits a false document to the government.
Other posts have discussed the role of U.S. income tax treaties in accidental “expatriation” for lawful permanent residents. See, Countries with U.S. Income Tax Treaties & Lawful Permanent Residents (“Oops – Did I Expatriate”?), posted April 29,. 2014 and The dangers of becoming a “covered expatriate” by not complying with Section 877(a)(2)(C), posted March 9, 2014.
We can call this “inadvertent expatriation”; when the individual themselves who is a LPR inadvertently causes a tax expatriation by operation of law.
There are other data points and relevant government operations of importance to LPRs. For instance, see, Does the IRS have access to the USCIS immigration data for former lawful permanent residents (LPRs)?, posted April 11, 2015. See, More Information and More Information: USCIS Creates New Form for Abandonment of Lawful Permanent Residency
The point of this post is to highlight a point previously made:
While citizens are often the focus of the public press and Congress regarding “expatriation taxation”; the statute also wraps in so-called “long-term residents.” These are individuals who had or continue to have “lawful permanent residency status.” There are numerous technical considerations in this area, but needless to say, the number of former lawful permanent residents who have simply filed Form I-407 – Abandonment is far in excess of those U.S. citizens who have filed for and received a Certificate of Loss of Nationality (“CLN”) – Form DS-4083 (CLN). The graph reflects the enormous difference.
On a related post, the question was raised –What are the Number of LPRs who Leave U.S. Annually without filing Form I-407 – Abandonment?
This is important, since many LPR individuals will have “expatriated” without actually having filed USCIS Form I-407. See, Oops…Did I “Expatriate” and Never Know It: Lawful Permanent Residents Beware! International Tax Journal, CCH Wolters Kluwer, Jan.-Feb. 2014, Vol. 40 Issue 1, p9
A prior post discussed the new USCIS Form I-407 that must be filed by a lawful permanent resident (LPR) who wishes to formally create a record of their abandonment of LPR status. See, More Information and More Information: USCIS Creates New Form for Abandonment of Lawful Permanent Residency
This raises many questions regarding how information maintained by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Customs and Immigration Service (USCIS) can be shared with
and provided to the IRS.
Former “long-term residents” have extensive U.S. tax compliance obligations, including certification requirements under Section 877(a)(2)(C) to avoid “covered expatriate” status and the various adverse tax consequences.
Importantly many LPR individuals will have “expatriated” without actually having filed USCIS Form I-407. See, Oops…Did I “Expatriate” and Never Know It: Lawful Permanent Residents Beware! International Tax Journal, CCH Wolters Kluwer, Jan.-Feb. 2014, Vol. 40 Issue 1, p9
Some of the important records that are maintained by DHS/USCIS, include the following, much of which can be helpful in the enforcement of U.S. federal tax obligations.
Alien Files (A-Files) are maintained in electronic and paper format throughout DHS. Digitized A-Files are located in the Enterprise Document Management System (EDMS). The Central Index System (CIS) maintains an index of the key personally identifiable information (PII) in the A-File, which can be used to retrieve additional information through such applications as Enterprise Citizenship and Immigrations Services Centralized Operational Repository (eCISCOR), the Person Centric Query Service (PCQS) and the Microfilm Digitization Application System (MiDAS). The National File Tracking System (NFTS) provides a tracking system of where the A-Files are physically located, including whether the file has been digitized.
The databases maintaining the above information are located within the DHS data center in the Washington, DC metropolitan area as well as throughout the country. Computer terminals providing electronic access are located at U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) sites at Headquarters and in the Field throughout the United States and at appropriate facilities under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other locations at which officers of DHS component agencies may be posted or operate to facilitate DHS’s mission of homeland security.
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- Receipt file number(s);
- Full name and any aliases used;
- Physical and mailing addresses;
- Phone numbers and email addresses;
- Social Security Number (SSN);
- Date of birth;
- Place of birth (city, state, and country);
- Countries of citizenship;
- Physical characteristics (height, weight, race, eye and hair color, photographs, fingerprints);
- Government-issued identification information (i.e., passport, driver’s license):